The Energy Charter Treaty is the only multilateral agreement that seeks to directly address the complex political, economic and legal problems associated with energy transit. The Treaty goes further than WTO/GATT in developing a specific transit-related regime for the energy sector.

The Energy Charter Treaty promotes the principles of freedom of transit and of non-discrimination, includes an obligation to provide national treatment for energy in transit, and prohibits interruption of flows and the placing of obstacles to construction of new energy transport facilities. It also contains a specific conciliation procedure for disputes over energy transit.